Sulfates – Everything You Need To Know
Sulfates – Why are these chemicals bad for my hair? If you ask this question, you’re going to discover that the answer is quite surprising.
An increasing number of people are beginning to learn the various negative aspects to using hair shampoos and conditioners that contain sulfates.
Table Of Contents:
- Sulfates And Hair Care
- Dangers Of Sulfates In Shampoos And Hair Care Products
- Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS)
- Sodium Laureth Sulfate (SLES)
- Ammonium Lauryl Sulfate (ALS)
- Sodium Trideceth Sulfate
- Sodium Myreth Sulfate
- Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate
- Sodium Coco Sulfate
- Disodium Laureth Sulfosuccinate
- Sodium Lauryl Sulfoacetate
- Useful Information
Take a quick look at the ingredients list for the shampoo you’re currently using. The more you discover about the question of why are sulfates bad for hair, the more likely you are to begin to wonder about great and affordable sulfate free alternatives.
While these alternatives to shampoos containing sulfate do indeed exist, a little education on the subject is still essential.
Why a company would choose to include a chemical that contains sulfates is not a difficult concept to understand.
They also act as a foaming agent, are cheap to include in the products, and are capable of removing that unpleasant-feeling oily buildup in your hair. There are other reasons as to why sulfates are prevalent in your current shampoo, but those are certainly the main ones.
With all this in mind, you are in a better position to ask yourself why are sulfates bad for hair. There are lots of high quality sulfate free shampoos and hair conditioners on the market these days.
Are Sulfates Bad For Hair?
On the subject of whether or not sulfates (Sulfate Formula: SO42-) are bad for your hair, an increasing amount of information points to the following fact: Sulfates are not good for your hair.
While the severity of this fact can vary from one person to the next, there are a number of reasons as to why sulfates are not good for your hair:
- Chemicals containing sulfates are known as surfactants. What this means is that the chemicals in your shampoo that contain sulfates are largely designed to degrade the surface tension for liquids, in order to make it easier for them to be spread around.
- Sulfates have a strong potential to be an irritant to your hair, skin, and even to your eyes. The degree to which this can be the case varies from one person to the next. Some experience very minor irritations through the use of shampoos containing sulfates. Others have severe chemical allergic reactions.
- Sulfates are capable of stripping your hair of essential oils. This can lead to the feeling that your hair has become extremely dried out, both in terms of its appearance and how it feels to the touch.
- Continuous use of shampoos that contain sulfates have the potential to cause long-term damage to your hair. This damage can be realized in terms of its appearance, as well in terms of the overall health of the hair itself.
- A 0.5% concentrate of the chemical that contains sulfates in a bottle of shampoo has been proven to have the potential to act as an irritant. A little research on the subject of chemical concentrations in shampoos will show you that a number of shampoos have concentrations of chemicals containing sulfates that range between 10%-30%.
- Some of the consequences that can result from using shampoos containing sulfates include irritation of the eyes, irritation of the scalp, tangled up hair, hair that feels frizzy or fuzzy, or hair that has become split. In some cases, the consequences can even include swelling of your hands, your face, and your arms.
These are some of the reasons why shampoos that contain sulfates are bad for your hair.
Sulfate Free Shampoos
With all of these reasons as to what shampoos containing sulfates can do to your hair, you’re likely going to start to wonder if it’s perhaps time to start looking at alternative shampoo products. Fortunately, these alternatives do indeed exist.
Not only do these alternatives exist, but they can be found in a variety of different places. The most important thing to consider with sulfate free shampoos is the fact that the best of them are going to leave your hair feeling softer and cleaner than it ever has before.
Best of all is the way it’s going to do this without causing any particular irritation to your hair. When it comes to the subject of sulfate free shampoos, it’s important to look for natural ingredients.
Organic shampoos can bring a lot of benefits to the table. Unfortunately, certain alternative shampoos have simply replaced sulfates with other damaging chemicals. As long as you focus your search on sulfate free shampoos that contain natural ingredients, you shouldn’t have anything to worry about.
– The Products We Use Need to be Safe:
The questions has to cross everyone’s mind at some point:
- How safe are the everyday products that I use?
- What are they made of and do any of these contain substances having health-hazards that I am not aware of?
According to the Safe Shopper’s Bible, consumers have an inalienable right to know the ingredients in the products they use daily, and any hazards associated with those ingredients.
Government and industry have greatly failed to protect consumer health adequately; mostly by failing to fully inform consumers about the hazardous ingredients used in household products, cosmetics and foods.
Further, not a single cosmetic company warns consumers of the presence of carcinogens in its products; despite that several common cosmetic ingredients are known carcinogens, or they contain contaminants which are carcinogenic precursors (Steinman, David & Epstein, Samuel S., 1995).
– What about Sulfates in Shampoos?
Questions have arisen concerning the safety of certain ingredients of shampoos and hair care products; specifically the sulfate products used as surfactants or foaming agents in these products.
There are three different sulfate products used in shampoos:
- (1) Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS)
- (2) Sodium laureth sulfate (SLES)
- (3) Ammonium lauryl sulfate (ALS)
These are explained in more detail below:
It has many applications in detergents and cleaning products, and can be found in toothpastes, body wash, face wash, soap, shampoos, shaving creams and bubble bath formulations.
In more concentrated forms it is used in industrial cleaners, such as engine degreasers, carwash soaps, and floor cleaners (“Sodium dodecyl sulfate,” 2015).
According to the National Institutes of Health Hazardous Substance Database (HSDB), SLS can produce allergic sensitivity reactions on the skin; especially for those suffering from eczematous dermatitis.
It also is said to be the most common source of eye-irritation caused by commercial shampoos (HSDB, 2000, January 29).
What Is Sodium Laureth Sulfate?
SLES is also a detergent and surfactant found in many personal care products. SLES is produced similarly to SLS, but without an ethoxylation step. (“Sodium laureth sulfate,” 2015).
According to the HSDB, SLES can dry out the skin and like SLS, it is a common eye irritant found in shampoos (HSDB, 2002, November 8).
What Is Ammonium Lauryl Sulfate?
ALS is a very high-foaming surfactant found primarily in shampoos and body-wash products (“Ammonium lauryl sulfate,” 2015). According to the HSDB, ALS is a skin, eye, and respiratory irritant, and it also poses significant percutaneous toxicity when applied to the skin (HSDB, 1995, May 11).
What Is Sodium Trideceth Sulfate?
Take a moment to think about all of the things that you would expect from a face cleanser, soap, or any other type of disinfecting agent. First, you’d want to make sure that the products you were buying helped to get rid of dirt and grime, and second, you’d expect them to be soft on your skin. With the use of sodium trideceth sulfate, cosmetic enthusiasts can keep their makeup brushes and their skin sufficiently clean every time that they cleanse them.
One of the primary uses of sodium trideceth sulfate is as a disinfecting agent as it is typically referred to as a type of alcohol. In most formulas you will find that this ingredient is included alongside sodium laureth sulfate and many other cleansing agents. Their main job is to make sure that the surface they are applied to is sufficiently disinfected after application. Many people attribute sodium trideceth sulfate to the reduction of acne and other skin care concerns with consistent use of a certain type of cleanser.
Imagine what it would be like to use a face cleanser or a body wash that never foamed. You wouldn’t have the same experience of feeling as clean after a shower as you normally would. Many ingredients including sodium trideceth sulfate and sodium laureth sulfate are useful for creating a great foaming sensation while you are cleansing your skin. The foaming not only gives you the idea of being cleaner, but it also helps to pick up more dirt and grime off of any surface so it is surely left cleaner.
You might find it hard to believe that a certain type of chemical can be responsible for improving the softness of your skin, though it is important to note that many manufacturers add sodium trideceth sulfate to remedy against the harsh properties that other alcohols can bring to a surface.
For example, some types of alcohols can purify your skin, but without the right soothing agents this could cause your skin to become very dry and irritated. With the help of certain components including sodium trideceth sulfate, the softness in your skin will be returned.
Breaking Hard Water:
It’s also important to find cleansers with sodium trideceth sulfate if you live in an area that is accustomed to hard water. Hard water is known to have an array of minerals that can make your hair and body feel heavy, oily, and unclean. It helps to break down the minerals so you feel fresher after every washing experience.
What Is Sodium Myreth Sulfate?
With more people becoming more aware of the ingredients in their favorite products, it has lead many consumers to consider whether the items they are using are safe or not. In comparison to a variety of other ingredients, sodium myreth sulfate isn’t one of the worst components of a formula and it helps to provide additional disinfecting and foaming properties. A variety of shampoos, body washes, and face washes have sodium myreth sulfate in their composition and you may or may not avoid it based on your personal preferences.
Understanding Organic Compounds:
If you do some research into sodium myreth sulfate you’ll learn that it is made out of organic compounds. It is important to note that just because you see the term “organic” doesn’t mean that it’s from plant-based derivatives.
Instead, sodium myreth sulfate is created out of molecules that have been taken from carbon instead of an inorganic compound such as cyanide. There have been many researchers that have stated the classification of compounds between organic and inorganic can be confusing for anyone that is not a specialist in chemistry.
Acting as a Detergent:
The main purposes of sodium myreth sulfate are to act as a detergent and help to get a variety of surfaces clean. All of the compounds within the molecule will disinfect a variety of different materials ranging from clothing to your skin. You can typically find this ingredient in many different types of cleansers ranging from laundry detergent to acne clearing face wash. Much like different types of alcohols, it helps to get rid of excess dirt and grime.
Inexpensive to Use:
One of the main reasons as to why more manufacturers are beginning to cut out different ingredients but keeping sodium myreth sulfate is because it is an inexpensive ingredient that they can use to make their products appear to be better. Many consumers assume that the more something foams, the better it is at cleaning a surface which is why sodium myreth sulfate is so popular amongst shampoo, soap, and toothpaste manufacturers.
Improving Foaming Properties:
As mentioned, foaming is one of the most common effects that you’ll get when you use a product that contains sodium myreth sulfate. In fact, without the combination of this ingredient and others such as sodium trideceth sulfate, you wouldn’t have any foaming at all from detergents and cleansers. It is a great way to make consumers feel like they are getting cleaner.
What Is Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate?
The white to cream coloured solid substance called sodium dodecyl sulphate is actually an ionic surfactant. The latter term is used to describe substances with charged groups on their heads.
It thus means that this particular substance has either a positive or negative charge. Since the head of this organic compound that is synthetic is negative, then it is anionic; if it were positive, we would have said that it is a cationic surfactant.
It is known by other names such as Dodecyl sodium sulphate or Lauryl sulfate sodium salt.
What is it a mixture of?
Mostly, this salt is derived from the mixing of sodium alkyl sulphates. These sulphates are commonly known as lauryl. It is a derivative of coconut or kernel oil.
Due to its ability to lower the surface tension of solutions that are aqueous in nature, it plays an important role in fat emulsification.
The organic compound is used a wetting agent.
The pharmaceuticals, soaps and toothpastes contain this organic substance in them. It has what is called amphiphilic characteristics. it ‘s ability to form micelles makes it ideal for making the detergents that we use at home and in industries.
The substance decomposes:
The toxicity of this organic compound is much evident when it is heated. It starts to decompose; emitting fumes mainly oxides of sulphur and sodium. One should avoid these fumes as they are highly poisonous.
It disperses various ingredients hence used in pastes and creams.
Biochemistry of protein:
It finds a lot of use in research of proteins in the field of biochemistry.
You will most likely come across this cleaning agent in the laboratories. In term of hygiene, you will find that it is used in the removal of oils and fat residues. This could perhaps explain why it is in such high concentrations in industrial products.
Loss of sweetness:
If you would like to significantly reduce the effect of sweetness, this is the substance to use.
The Sodium Lauryl Sulfate has some microbicidal properties. A microbicidal is a substance that is used to kill micro-organisms such as fungi and viruses. It is known to sink in water. However, it also mixes with water.
How safe is this substance?
Generally speaking, it is accepted as a food substance, hence safe. It is mostly used in the food industry for fat emulsification.
What Is Sodium Coco Sulfate?
Sodium coco sulfate is one of the many chemicals that are used in soaps, shower gels, shampoos and other cosmetic products. You may be aware of sulfate free shampoos and how they have become increasingly popular. Chemicals like sodium coco sulfate are used by manufacturers because they are cheap and create the much desired foam when mixed with water.
The sulfates are also effective cleansers. They tend to clean skin and hair more easily than other compounds. These chemicals are also used in detergents for the same reason. While sodium coco sulfate and the likes of sodium lauryl sulfate and laureth sulfate are mild chemicals, they do have several side effects.
The Prevalent Use of Sodium Coco Sulfate
Sodium coco sulfate along with sodium lauryl sulfate and sodium laureth sulfate are used in any cosmetic product that doesn’t clearly say it is sulfate free or free of sulfates. Even if you don’t see the names of these chemicals on the label, do not presume the products don’t have these ingredients. These chemicals are often mentioned by their alternate names.
The prevalent use of sodium coco sulfate along with other sulfates is primarily because of the foaming, the bubbles and the luxurious suds that are formed when you shampoo, take a bath in the tub and brush your teeth respectively. Foam is often confusingly and wrongly associated with the cleansing effect of body care and cosmetic products. Foam doesn’t necessarily imply cleaning or cleansing. However, foam does play a role in the washing off of cosmetic products.
Without foam it is difficult to apply a gel or cream or even a soap and toothpaste. There has to be some lather to spread the soap, shampoo, gel or even toothpaste after initial application.
It must be noted that sodium lauryl sulfate and sodium coco-sulfate are the same chemicals. There is a tiny difference between the two. Sodium coco sulfate is usually milder or gentler since the coconut oil or palm kernel oils are not as purified as in sodium lauryl sulfate. Both are surfactants. That means they reduce the tension of the liquid they are mixed with when the liquid comes in contact with a surface. Liquid or gel or paste can cause friction when applied and massaged against skin, hair or teeth. This friction must be reduced to nullify any discomfort or sensation one may feel.
Also, surfactants like sodium coco sulfate facilitate the mixing of oil and water, with each other and with other ingredients that are used by manufacturers.
The Risks of Using Products that have Sodium Coco Sulfate
A lot has been said, written and discussed about sodium coco sulfate. It is true that sulfate free shampoos, soaps, shower gels and toothpastes are healthier. However, there is no reason to be too alarmed. There are many reports that claim sodium coco sulfate as one of the possible causes of cancer. Some go to state that it is a carcinogen. There is no truth to this, if you consider clinical findings. There is no scientific evidence connecting sodium coco sulfate with any type of cancer.
There is one fact about sodium coco sulfate that you should be aware of. It does strip the hair and skin of the essential oils that are secreted by the body. Natural body oils nourish the skin and the hair. These oils are completely cleansed from the skin and hair when you use any product containing sodium coco sulfate. This is not a permanent damage.
Replenishing your hair and skin with oil and moisturizer respectively, eating healthy foods or nutritious meals and taking care of your personal hygiene will help you to avert the short term and long term side effects of sodium coco sulfate. But there is the possibility of skin inflammations, irritation and itchy sensations for most people.
Dry skin, dandruff and itchy scalp are often a direct side effect of sodium coco sulfate and other such chemicals. Those who have very dry skin or hair will have serious problems and they can get worse as one continues to get exposed to these chemicals.
Sodium coco sulfate is bad for the eyes. It must not be ingested in any condition and in any form or product. Prolonged exposure to cosmetic products containing sodium coco sulfate will cause some health problems. Long baths or keeping the shampoo on the hair for a long time, not cleansing the scalp, hair or body after being exposed to these chemicals and not rinsing properly to get rid of all traces can lead the chemicals to penetrate the skin or to get absorbed by the dermal layers. This is not desirable.
Look out for these names on labels when you purchase soaps, gels, shampoos and toothpastes: sodium coco sulfate, olefin sulfate, sodium lauryl sulfate or lauryl sodium sulfate, sodium dodecyl sulphate dodecyl sodium sulfate, lauryl sulfate sodium salt, sulfuric acid monododecyl ester sodium salt, sodium n-dodecyl sulfate and sodium dodecane sulfate.
What Is Disodium Laureth Sulfosuccinate?
Is Disodium Laureth Sulfosuccinate (DLS) something that you really need to worry about? If you are trying to focus on organic, safe products in your kitchen, bathroom, and elsewhere, then there are a few different things about this element that you are going to want to keep in mind.
Is Disodium Laureth Sulfosuccinate dangerous? Is it something you should avoid as much possible? Not necessarily. Is it something you don’t need to worry about in the least? On that front, there are a few things you will want to keep in mind.
Explaining Disodium Laureth Sulfosuccinate
One of the great challenges to trying to be a smart shopper is to remain consistently educated on the ingredients that make up the foods you eat, the shampoos you use, the soaps you buy, and so forth. There are a number of ingredients that you are going to want to avoid as much as possible, particularly if you are eager to embrace a more organic lifestyle.
One of the things to remember is that just because an ingredient sounds questionable, this doesn’t mean that is actually the case. Disodium Laureth Sulfosuccinate is a good example of what we are talking about. You can find it listed in a bunch of different shampoos, including the ones that promise to be organic. It also bears a certain resemblance to Sodium Lauryl Sulfate.
What you want to remember is that DLS is not the same as SLS. In fact, it is not similar to any of the sulfate surfactants that you are going to come across. This is a larger molecule than the sulfate surfactants that you’re thinking of, and so you don’t have to worry this element penetrating your skin.
DLS represents the foaming agent that makes up most of the shampoos that we use. Is it going to cause actual harm to your health? There is virtually nothing in the way of actual tangible evidence to suggest that. Does this mean you don’t have to worry about DLS at all? Well, it can still function as an irritant.
In other words, Disodium Laureth Sulfosuccinate can cause minor irritations. It can also contribute to yur hair losing some of its natural oils over time. In other words, we are talking about things that you are definitely going to want to take seriously. By the same token, we aren’t talking about something that can compromise your health in some form or fashion.
What You Should Know About Sodium Lauryl Sulfoacetate
Sodium lauryl sulfoacetate is obtained from palm oils and coconut. It is a foaming agent used widely in a plethora of cosmetic products. Termed as a surfactant, it is deemed skin friendly and is one of the common ingredients in soaps and shampoos. Several toothpastes contain sodium lauryl sulfoacetate but it is mostly found in shower gels, shampoos, soaps and conditioners among other cosmetic products for hair and skin.
Sodium lauryl sulfoacetate is one of the most effective surfactants known to us. It produces a luxurious and often rich lather that can get rid of dirt, oil and bacteria from the skin and hair without causing any damage.
There are some studies that have highlighted a few side effects of sodium lauryl sulfoacetate, particularly on the scalp, hair and also on certain types of skin depending on the nature of use, the exact product which implies the quantum of the ingredient and also the frequency of use for an individual.
Demonization of SLS
Sodium lauryl sulfoacetate is the SLS that you see marketed by many brands of shampoos and soaps. Interestingly, SLS is promoted as an undesirable ingredient and those who use the term actually market products that are free of sodium lauryl sulfoacetate. For decades, SLS has been a common ingredient in shampoos and soaps.
Not many people knew of SLS and its presence, neither were many interested nor were many observant of what the labels said. It was only after some people started writing about SLS and its side effects that brought it to the attention of consumers. This coincided with the launch of shampoos and soaps that could claim to be SLS free. Whether this was the cause of those published writings or it was the other way around is for anyone to guess. The jury is still out on that debate.
What can be stated for certain is that SLS is misunderstood. There is substantial misperception and conscious spreading of misinformation. SLS is not the best ingredient you can have if you consider what is ideal. It has its shortcomings but it is not as harmful as some people have made it appear to be. There is no clinical data or evidence, proven correlation or scientific fact that can infer for certain sodium lauryl sulfoacetate is a carcinogen. There are no links to any form of cancer.
Yet, there are people who write and promote the idea that SLS is a cause of cancer. No scientific evidence is furnished and no fact is used to substantiate or validate such an argument. The debate rages on meanwhile.
Sodium lauryl sulfoacetate along with sodium coco sulfate, sodium lauryl sulfate and laureth sulfate are mild chemicals. They are neither harsh to the skin or hair when applied nor are the used in a quantity that will cause serious health, skin or hair problems. It is the prolonged use of cosmetic products, not taking care of hair, skin and personal hygiene along with diet, balanced lifestyle and exercise that leads to many skin and hair problems.
These problems get attributed to sodium lauryl sulfoacetate in particular and to other sodium compounds. The truth is one must have a holistic approach to skin and hair care. Only that would prevent the apparent side effects.
Side Effects of Sodium Lauryl Sulfoacetate
Sodium lauryl sulfoacetate along with other similar ingredients in soaps and shampoos will cause dry skin or hair. If someone has naturally dry skin, has a history of irritation or inflammation, has poorly nourished skin that already has some problems then these can get worse after prolonged and repeated use of soaps and shampoos containing SLS.
Those who have a history of dandruff, dry hair, frizzy and thinning hair, breakage, dry scalp and itchy scalp among other conditions will be vulnerable to worsening of the condition when using SLS shampoo or soap too often. How one uses these products will also influence the side effects as harsh use or rigid use of the shampoo or soap will cause substantial effects.
It is necessary to understand that cleansing and nourishing go hand in hand, caring and then restoring the health of hair and skin goes hand in hand. It is not just about cleansing. You could clean your hair and not nourish it well enough which will lead to damage.
You could cleanse your skin and not indulge in the right foods which will lead to damage to the skin over time. You cannot have a partial or half baked approach to skin and hair care. You must provide the nutrition, take care of your hygiene and also timely cleanse and condition your hair and skin.
A multipronged and holistic approach will not only limit the side effects of SLS but you would not experience any impact whatsoever but the desired easy cleansing effect that such surfactants are supposed to assure.
When you eat something, the enzymes in your saliva and stomach help to break it down and flush it out of your body. However, when you put substances on your skin, they may be absorbed directly into your bloodstream without being modified by the digestion process.
These can bio accumulate in your tissues and over time, affect your health at some point. Many of the same poisons that pollute the environment are also lurking in the jars and bottles that line your bathroom shelves.
We can be at risk from products we have always assumed are safe (Mercola.com, 2010, July 13).
Your skin is much more than just a covering for your body: It is your body’s largest organ. It has many different functions, such as:
- (1) serving as your body’s primary defense against infections;
- (2) eliminating wastes through perspiration;
- (3) providing a protective barrier to viruses and bad bacteria;
- (4) providing a friendly habitat for good bacteria;
- (5) maintaining body temperature by controlling heat flow between you and the external environment;
- (6) sealing in moisture to help maintain your body’s fluid balance;
- (7) producing vitamin D for your body; and
- (8) sending external sensory perceptions (i.e., hot/cold or hard/soft) back to your brain so that you can properly react to the conditions around you.
It is therefore imperative that you give your skin the same thoughtful care you give your diet, because much of what goes “on” you ends up going “in” you (Mercola.com, 2010, July 13).
According to the Environmental Working Group (EWG), research studies on SLS have shown links to
- (1) irritation of the skin and eyes;
- (2) organ toxicity;
- (3) developmental/reproductive toxicity
- (4) neurotoxicity and biochemical or cellular changes; and
- (5) possible mutations and cancer.
The EWG claims that actual health risks will vary based on the level of exposure to the product’s ingredients and the health and susceptibility of the individual (Mercola.com, 2010, July 13).
The worry about SLS/SLES/ALS intake, either orally or through the skin, concerns the gradual, cumulative effects of long-term, repeated exposures through long use of products containing these chemicals.
The lack of long-term studies on the chemicals in these products don’t provide an adequate picture concerning the long-term effects of exposures to these substances (Mercola.com, 2010, July 13).
– The Products Can Contain Impurities
The synthesis of SLS/SLES/ALS can also result in toxic impurities developing during product formulation. According to the EWG, ethylene dioxide is a precursor used in the formulation process that can form impurities, and is a possible human carcinogen, along with being an immunotoxicant, an organ system toxicant, and a developmental/reproductive toxicant.
Another impurity is 1,4-Dioxane, which the EWG says is a possible human carcinogen, an immunotoxicant, and an organ system toxicant. Nitrosamines are yet another impurity, labeled by the EWG as a possible human carcinogen, as well as being an organ system toxicant, and a developmental/reproductive toxicant (Mercola.com, 2010, July 13).
According to a Cosmetic Ingredient Review published in 1983 in the Journal of the American College of Toxicology, SLS and ALS appear to be safe in formulations designed for discontinuous, brief use, followed by thorough rinsing from the surface of the skin afterwards. The concentrations of these substances in products intended for prolonged contact with the skin should never exceed 1% (Moore, A.F., 1983).
In conclusion, people should be aware of the possible toxicity and health hazards posed by exposure to SLS/SLES/ALS. If you intend to use shampoos containing these surfactants, look for products containing no more than a 1% concentration.
Alternatively, stick with organic shampoos which have 100% vegetarian ingredients, and which contain no harsh preservatives, no synthetic colors or fragrances, no SLS/SLES/ALS, or any other synthetically derived chemicals in their formulation.
Ammonium lauryl sulfate. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved January 7, 2015, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ammonium_lauryl_sulfate
Hazardous Substance Database. (2000, January 29). Sodium Lauryl Sulfate. Retrieved from http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/search2/f?./temp/~uO1GqB:3
Hazardous Substance Database. (1995, May 11). Ammonium Lauryl Sulfate. Retrieved from http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/search2/f?./temp/~KWbkcL:1
Hazardous Substance Database. (2002, November 8). Sodium Dodecylpoly(Oxyethylene) Sulfate. Retrieved from http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/search2
Mercola.com. (2010, July 13). Deadly and Dangerous Shampoos, Toothpastes, and Detergents:
Could 16,000 Studies Be Wrong About SLS? Retrieved from http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2010/07/13/sodium-laurylsulfate.aspx
Moore, A.F. (1983).Final Report on the Safety of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Ammonium Lauryl Sulfate. J Am Coll Tox, 2(7), 127-181. Retrieved from http://online.personalcarecouncil.org/ctfa-static/online/lists/cir-pdfs/pr216.pdf
Sodium dodecyl sulfate. (n.d.) In Wikipedia. Retrieved January 7, 2015, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sodium_dodecyl_sulfate
Sodium laureth sulfate. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved January 7, 2015, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sodium_laureth_sulfate
Steinman, David & Epstein, Samuel S. (1995). The Safe Shopper’s Bible: A Consumer’s Guide to Nontoxic Household Products, Cosmetics, and Food. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.